Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration is a condition that affects the center of the vision called macula, is associated with age and usually affects people over 50 years.


  • Difficulty in reading
  • Distortion of images or lines
  • Difficulty in recognizing faces
  • Dark or empty spots in the center of vision

Cataract is the blurring of the lens of the eye.


  • blurred vision
  • reduced vision at night
  • difficulty driving at night
  • difficulty recognizing faces
  • difficulty in reading
  • sensitivity to sunlight.
Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause damage to many organs in the human body, including the eyes.


    • Laser photocoagulation
    • Intravitreal Injections
    • Surgery
Genetic Diseases

Many — eye diseases are caused by mutations in specific genes.


Regarding the “etiological” “cause-cure” treatment of these diseases, meaning the application of gene therapy, we have very important developments.


Glaucoma is an eye disease which affects the optic nerve.

Predisposing factors:

  • High eye pressure
  • Family history
  • Age
  • Corticosteroids intake
  • Myopia
  • Eye injury
Intraocular Inflammations

Intraocular inflammation is called uveitis due to the infection of the inner part of the eye and is divided into anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis and posterior uveitis.


These inflammations are manifested with various symptoms such as:

  • Light sensitivity
  • Blurred vision
  • Pain
  • floaters
  • Redness of the eye

Keratoconus is a bilateral corneal disease which occurs at a rate of approximately 1 in 2000 people. It is characterized by gradual thinning of the cornea resulting in forward deformation taking the shape of a cone.


  • Increased sensitivity to light
  • Difficulty driving at night
  • Diplopia,especially at night
  • Intolerance of soft contact lenses
  • Headaches and general eye pain
  • Excessive rubbing of the eyes
Retinal Artery Occlusion

Retinal artery obstruction is the blockage of blood flow to the main artery of the retina or its branches.

The main predisposing factors are:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Hyperlipidemia (High levels of cholesterol in the blood)
  • Heart valve problems
Retinal Vein Occlusion

Retinal vein occlusion occurs when the venous drainage from the eye is obstructed , resulting in bleeding and swelling at the center of the vision, the macula.

Types of retinal vein occlusion:

There are two different types of vein occlusion:

  • Central Retinal vein occlusion
  • Branch Retinal vein occlusion